Literature Review Insecticidal Paints: The insecticide for preventing and eradicating insects such as cockroaches and flies is called an insecticide for disinfection. Insect repellent composition and insect repellent paint composition containing the same Insecticidal paints have been economically accessible for quite a long while, primarily in Europe and North America, where they are applied against disturbance caused by insects on walls and roofs. In spite of the fact that Insecticidal paints have been proposed for the control of infection vectors since the 1940s, the idea has never increased much consideration as compared to pest control spraying system, which offers a similar fundamental method of activity. Today, Insecticidal paints are getting restored concerned for their potential use against insects. This intrigue can be ascribed to a few factors, of which some most vital listed beneath.
Late advances in paint innovation have guided the improvement of novel “prepared to-utilize” paint plans in which micro encapsulated bug sprays, or dynamic fixings (AIs), are inserted in the paint network and bit by bit discharged on the surface of the dried paint. It is contended that the moderate discharge components empower uniform AI surface focuses with delayed remaining impact, when contrasted with prior Insecticidal paints items utilizing a straightforward admixture of AIs in standard paint plans. Depending upon the synthetic activity of the inserted AIs, Insecticidal paints may show diverse properties, including spatial repellency, contact irritancy, poisonous quality, bug spray collaboration, or bug development direction. Vitally, extraordinary AIs can be joined in a single Insecticidal paints to guarantee diverse methods of activity in one item. Concerning IRS, Insecticidal paints can offer assurance over an extensive variety of vector-borne illnesses (VBDs), including jungle fever and ignored tropical illnesses NTDs, for example, Chagas, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, dengue, and chikungunya. Be that as it may, Insecticidal paints might be effortlessly connected by mortgage holders, guardians, and private temporary workers alike, in this way taking out the requirement for exceptionally prepared staff and substantial scale strategic arranging as is required for IRS. Quite, slow release Insecticidal paints have been created for both inside and outside surfaces, expanding their scope of use past that of IRS. Indeed, outside Insecticidal paints could be the favored alternative for leishmaniasis control, as the phlebotomine vectors scale crosswise over outside walls. The stability of the insecticide is a very important factor because most of the components of the insecticide are also toxic to human beings and cattle. Accordingly, it is very important to notice the characteristics of the components of the insecticide.
Insecticide is classified into three classes according to lethal manners. They are insecticide including a contact poison, which extirpates vermin through contact of the poison with an insect, insecticide including a food poison, and a fumigant type insecticide which is lethal to an insect by absorption through a stigma. Insecticide also can be classified into an inorganic and organic type. The inorganic type insecticide includes a sulfur insecticide, a mercury insecticide and the like. The organic type insecticide is further classified into a natural organic type and a synthetic organic type. The natural organic type insecticide includes pyrethrin extracted from the flower of pyrethrum which has an immediate effect on the insects while having low toxicity to human beings and so is widely used. However, the synthetic organic insecticide is commonly utilized because the amount of the natural pyrethrin is limited and is therefore expensive.
The synthetic organic insecticide includes an organic chloride type, an organic phosphorous type, a carbamate type, a pyrethroid type and the like. The organic chloride type insecticide includes DDT (dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane) which has an excellent effect for extended periods of time. However, the utilization of DDT is prohibited because it is toxic to the human body. The organic phosphorous type insecticide includes chloropyrifos which is a good eliminator especially for mosquitos. The carbamate type insecticide has a disadvantage of having a strong toxicity to mammals. The pyrethroid type insecticide includes Dichlorvos (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) DDVP 50 EC, Deltamethrin DM-50 EC and permethrin and has a similar chemical structure with that of the component extracted from the pyrethrum. In addition, this type has a low toxicity to mammals and so is recognized as the most appropriate insecticide.
Certain plant secondary compounds, so called because they are often by-products of normal plant metabolism, from various plants have been found to have insecticidal characteristics. Studies conducted by G. J ilani, R. C. Saxena and B. P. Rueda as reported in Entomological Society of America, 1988. indicated that tumeric oil, sweetflag oil and neem oil, not only repel the red flour beetle (a cosmopolitan pest of stored cereals), but they also interfere with its normal reproduction and development. In many research works, the natural plant secondary compounds are applied directly to the food product to be protected.
In the US patent number 5,843,215, entitled “INSECT REPELLENT COATINGS,” plant secondary compounds are incorporated in coatings suitable for application to flexible packaging and other paper and plastic surfaces. The work consists the use of different natural oils and studied thirty-one naturally occurring essential oils of plant origin under laboratory conditions for reproduction retardant, fumigant toxicity, and grain protection capability against the rice weevil. The tested coatings produced a behavior threshold response resulting in repellent, antifeedant and oviposition deterrent behavior over a wide range of concentrations.
In US. Pat. No. 5,023,247, entitled “Insecticidal Coating Composition and Process for Making and Using It,” a coating composition comprising a first phase containing a cross-linkable resin, a second phase containing Water, and a third phase containing an insecticide dissolved in a solvent
Wherein the solvent is immiscible with the first phase and with water is described. These coating compositions kill insects even after exposure to weather for extended periods of time. The patented invention differs from the present invention in that the coatings of the patented invention are three phase coating systems in which the resin phase is unstable. The patented invention utilizes synthetic insecticides Which kill insects While the US patent number 5,843,215 used natural plant secondary compounds Which repel, arrest feeding and/or arrest oviposition of insects and mites, thus avoiding pest invasion and, because of the unique combinations of secondary plant compounds employed, slow down genetic selection of the target pests which would become immune if a single compound were used or if toxic dosages of pesticides were used.
In US. Pat. No. 4,997,650, entitled “Insecticidal Resin Coating Film,” an insecticidal resin coating film comprising a combination of an acrylonitrile and/or methacrylonitrile copolymer resin and an insecticidal component is described. The insecticidal component is kept on the surface of the coating film. The coatings of the patented invention are applied directly to substrates which are infested with insects such as cockroaches, flies and termites. Also, the patented invention utilizes synthetic insecticides which kill insects.
In US. Pat. No. 4,990,381, entitled “Multi-Layer Sandwich Sheet and packaging Using the Said Sheet”, a multilayer, laminated sandwich sheeting, comprising at least two layers superimposed and stuck together by welding or gluing is disclosed. One of the layers of patented invention comprises a material which is impervious to the active volatile agents of a perfuming or deodorizing composition, a flavoring agent (aroma) or an insecticidal or bacterial substance. The other layer is a polymeric material comprised of a polyolefin resin base or is made from a copolymer of polyamide and polyester, being premixed in a homogeneous manner with an active volatile agent. The insecticidal substances described as being useful in the patented invention are the synthetic insecticides: extract of pyrethrum, DDVP and Vaporthain. The patent does not disclose nor teach that plant secondary compounds have insect repellence. It does not indicate that the insect control strategy will take advantage of mixtures of active ingredients or resistance management qualities.
In US. Pat. No. 4,818,525, entitled “Insecticidal Resin Coating Film”, an insecticidal resin coating film which is formed mainly on a substrate so as to continuously and effectively kill and exterminate insects such as cockroaches, flies and termites which crawl on the coated substrate is described. The insecticides listed as being useful in the patented coating film are all synthetic insecticides which are included in amounts sufficient to kill insects. The naturally occurring insecticides of the present invention are included in the print varnishes of the present invention in amounts sufficient to repel, not kill, insects, thus avoiding the problem of “pest selection” wherein some of the insects become immune to the insecticide.
Korean Patent Publication No. 95-6942 discloses an insect repellent paint composition manufactured by mixing an insect repellent composition obtained by adsorbing pyrethroid type and organic phosphorous type insecticidal material into an adsorbent of a titanate compound with a paint composition. In this patent, the releasing amount of the effective component is controlled by adsorbing into the adsorbent in order to obtain the insect repellent effect for extended periods of time.
US patent publication number US 2013/0273129 relates to insecticide and acaricide paints that inhibit chitin synthesis, regulate insect juvenile hormone and repel arthropods, for controlling endemic diseases, pests and allergens. The paints comprise at least the following compounds (in any combination): 1%-100% Water, 0.0001%-20% insecticides, 0.0001%-20% chitin inhibitor, 0.0001%-20% juvenile hormone regulator, 1%-50% polymers, 0%-40% pigments, 0%-60% fillers, 0%-60% natural repellents, and 0.01%-20% stabilizers. The composition of the paints allows the active ingredients to be encapsulated in an aqueous polymer with or without the incorporation of fillers and pigments.
Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. Hei 5-320014 discloses an insect repellent paint composition which has a stable effect for a long time and is safe. The composition is manufactured by dispersing minute powder of boric acid type glass from which B2O3 is slowly flowed out, into the composition. The flowing out velocity of B2O3 can be controlled by the diameter of the powder and the components of the glass.
Now, we will move to experimentation for a few insecticides.