Introduction Of Techniques For WWTP – Waste Water Treatment Plants: The growing of unnecessary plants and algae is a major issue which is caused by the Nitrogen presence underwater. Thus, it is necessary to remove Nitrogen as it possesses harmful effects in water. The main sources of Nitrogen distribution in ecosystem involves two factors; one is natural and the other one is by humans. In case of natural source, N2 compounds are spread over the land via water flow or rain. While, in case of human source, N2 releases due to garbage and other human and animal’s activities. Nitrogen exists in nine different oxidation states. Considering the waste water treatment, it is mandatory to remove ammonia, nitrogen gas, nitrite and nitrate ions \.
The abundant use of fertilizers and other fossil fuels has increased the amount of Nitrogen content in water for last few years. The nitrogen compounds have high solubility in water and thus their ions inhibit plants growth underwater. Organic nitrogen exists as amines which are the effluents of different industries and involves struggles to remove them.
Municipal wastewater treatment plants are not likely to remove nitrogen impurities thoroughly as their main purpose is to remove turbidity from water and TSS (total suspended solids). Therefore, oxygen controlling is necessary to be introduced in these plants.
Globally, 11-30% of nitrogen pollutants present in water is because of contaminated water flow of waste water treatment plants.
A process named nitrification & denitrification is tested for the removal of nitrogen. Nitrification is an oxygen soluble process and denitrification involves the reduced amount of air. Therefore, nitrogen was removed by adjusting amount of dissolved oxygen. It was observed that by this technique nitrogen can be removed. The excess of nitrates is dangerous for humans as nitrates can undergo reactions to produce carcinogenic compounds. Nitrates can form nitrites in human causing change in hemoglobin which is very much harmful to human life. According to a research, it was observed that irregularities in a born baby is due to the excess amount of nitrates in water. NH3 is harmful & toxic for sea life as it consumes oxygen that become deadly for marine life. The reason behind this is the reduction of oxygen. Animals living in the sea needs oxygen to live but when there is a lack of oxygen their life is at danger.
The recycling of waste water is a good way to reuse water in several ways like in cooling towers, heat exchangers and other water requiring processes. Cheaper ways of detecting pollutants and then removing them efficiently before reuse of wastewater will ensure confidence in people to use that treated water. Therefore, primary objective of this study is to highlight the harms of N2 present in water and then removal of that N2 by using different processes. Some of the processes involved are:
The conclusion of this study is based on the cost of the processes, efficiency and other parameters involved in the processes. Also, the suitability based on merits and demerits with few suggestions are narrated in terms of process compatibility and effectiveness.
After discussing Introduction Of Techniques For WWTP – Waste Water Treatment Plants, Now, we will begin with first technique which is Trickling filters (TF).